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Adapted from http://cronologia.leonardo.it/storia/a1859g.htm
8 AUGUST – A Zurigo, si apre la conferenza di Pace per dar seguito all’Armistizio
Villafranca. L’Austria aveva posto il veto alla partecipazione del Regno
Sardinia (lo abbiamo giÃ letto quanto poca considerazione aveva Francesco
Joseph for Italians and especially for Cavour) but Napoleon III succeeds
to make admit the plenipotentiaries of the Savoy dynasty. That, however, are fish
out of water. They can not decide anything, and nothing argue. On the table he was left
clearly illustrated what he had signed Vittorio Emanuele in Villafranca.
Others could not say, neither do, was unnecessary and even their presence.
I preliminari della pace essendo giÃ stabiliti tra gli Imperatori di Francia
and Austria, there remained more than proceeding to the conclusion of a Treaty
solemn. Era stata scelta la cittÃ di Zurigo in Svizzera, wanting so rewarding
della neutralitÃ da essa mantenuta durante la guerra.
Of the three states thus interested, France accounted Count Bourqueney
and March. Banneville, Austria the Meysembug Baron and Count
Karoly, Piedmont Cav. Desambrois. These had to ask the fortresses
Mantua and Peschiera remain united to Lombardy; and that this does not pass
Piedmont to any part of the Austrian debt; he respected the so-called
vote of the central Italian populations; Sardinia it was up to the management
military and diplomatic in the Italian Confederation; the King of Sardinia were
returned the Iron Crown: these were the instructions given to the Savoy DÃ©sambrois.
But then on August 8 he met the Plenipotentiary for the first time,
Sardinian envoy refrained from intervening at conferences
then they were held only between the French and Austrian plenipotentiaries, in which
was established the sale of Lombardy that Austria was the
France,es, from the hands of which had to then receive the Piedmont; for that
only among the plenipotentiaries of France and Austria was the pattuirsi
cession, ,, It made the agreement between the two Powers, It remained only to Piedmont
free to accept or refuse the gift of Lombardy.
Meanwhile they were published by Austria and Prussia documents
Diplomats related to the issue of mediation, one of the causes
They had produced the sudden end to the war, mediation by those
documents appear proposed by France through England, ,
after he and Russia had said, no less clearly the
Prussia: they had not had anywhere in the proposal of mediation
suddenly he stopped forcing the fighters to lay down arms. In
Following would seem that the good understanding between Austria and those
Powers were to be reborn, or at least they should not be repeated by
the laments of its abandonment suffered. It was almost certain that Austria
He maintained in the sentiments expressed in the imperial manifesto, and that reports
between Prussia and Austria will remain quite cool.
In fact, several Austrian newspapers, among the most important, Read the mentioned
documents, It drew to a result that Austria had been betrayed
Prussia. The Austrian Journal he said, that Prussia not granted
another Austria, that the offer of his mediation: what equally
easy but pointless. E a far capire la inanitÃ dellâ€™offerta, He wondered whether
Prussia would have been pleased if Austria, that being
its provinces or those of Prussian Posen invaded by the enemy, Austria
It is content to prevent the Alemagna to come to the aid; offered
But his mediation praying humbly the enemy to grant those provinces
some second prince of the house of Prussia. The Journal of
Vienna then he stated that the Prussian army had been for no other
place in a state of war, only to contain the Hannover, Saxony,
Bavaria and Wurtemberg ready to defend the Austrian crown. Unfortunately
since then he was in the drawings of freemasonry (Prussia e C.) the destruction
the Catholic Habsburg Empire the benefit of Lutherans Hohenzollern:
He did everything to weaken it.
But here's what was decided with the Treaty. Ignoring completely the Savoy. They had only just read. And follow the rules.
1. Vi sarÃ per lâ€™avvenire, pace ed amicizia tra Sua MaestÃ lâ€™Imperatore deâ€™ Francesi, e Sua MaestÃ lâ€™Imperatore dâ€™Austria, as of yet between their heirs and successors, their states and subjects respettivi.
2. Prisoners of war shall be immediately rendered by either side.
3. To mitigate the evils of war, and an exceptional derogation, the law generally consecrated, the Austrians captured ships, It could not be the subject of a conviction by the council of catches, They will be returned.
“The ships and cargoes will be returned in the state in which they will, upon delivery, after payment of all disbursements and all expenses which have been able to lead the conduct of the guard and the education of such catches, as freight still owed to the captors; e in fine, non potrÃ essere reclamata alcuna indennitÃ per ragione di catture colate
to bottom or destroyed, no less than for the confiscations carried out on the merchandise, che erano proprietÃ nemiche, even when they had not yet been the subject of a decision of the Board of catches.
“It is of course on the other hand that the judgments pronounced by the board of catches are final, and attributed to those entitled.
“Art. 4. Sua MaestÃ lâ€™Imperatore dâ€™Austria rinunzia per sÃ© e per tutti i suoi discendenti e successori, in favore di Sua MaestÃ lâ€™Imperatore deâ€™ Francesi, her rights and titles over Lombardy, with the exception of the fortresses of Peschiera and Mantova, and from certain territories
nuova delimitazione che restano in possesso di Sua MaestÃ Imperiale e Reale Apostolica.
“border, starting from the southern limit of Tyrol, on Lake Garda, seguirÃ il mezzo del lago fino allâ€™altezza di Bardolino e di Manerba;
ove essa raggiungerÃ in linea retta il punto dâ€™intersecazione della zona di difesa della piazza di Peschiera con il lago di Garda.
Questa zona sarÃ determinata da una circonferenza il cui raggio calcolato a partire dal centro della piazza, It is set at 3,500 meters, plus the distance of the said center to the esplanade of the fort's most advanced. From the point of intersection of the circumference so drawn with Mincio, la frontiera seguirÃ il Thalweg della riviera fino alle Grazie, si estenderÃ dalle Grazie in linea diretta, up to Scarzarolo, seguirÃ il Thalweg del Po fino a Luzzara, point from which nothing changed at the current limits, such as they existed before the war.
“Una commissione militare istituita dai Governi interessati sarÃ incaricata di eseguire il disegno sul terreno nel piÃ¹ breve termine possibile.
“Art. 5. Sua MaestÃ lâ€™Imperatore deâ€™ Francesi dichiara la sua intenzione di rimettere a Sua MaestÃ il Re di Sardegna i territori ceduti in virtÃ¹ dellâ€™articolo antecedente.
“Art. 6. I still occupied territories, under the Convention of July 8 past, They will be mutually evacuated by the warring Powers, le milizie delle quali si ritireranno immediatamente al di lÃ dei confini determinati dallâ€™articolo 4Â°.
“Art. 7. Il nuovo Governo della Lombardia prenderÃ a carico suo i tre quinti del debito del Monte Lombardo-Veneto.
“Egli si accollerÃ egualmente una parte del prestito Nazionale del 1854, fixed between the High Contracting Parties to forty million guilders (Coin Convention).
“The manner of payment of these forty million guilders, sarÃ determinato in un articolo addizionale.
“Art. 8. Una commissione internazionale sarÃ immediatamente istituita per procedere alla liquidazione del Monte Lombardo-Veneto, la divisione dellâ€™attivo e passivo di questo stabilimento si effettuerÃ prendendo a base la ripartizione di tre quinti per il nuovo Governo, and two-fifths for Austria.
“By the fund of cushioning the Mount and its cash deposits consisting effects in public, il nuovo Governo riceverÃ tre quinti, and Austria two-fifths; and how to match assets, which it is made up of rustic property or mortgage loans, la commissione effettuerÃ le ripartizioni tenendo conto della situazione degli immobili, in maniera da attribuirne la proprietÃ , per quanto sarÃ possibile a quello dei due Governi sul territorio del quale saranno situati.
“As for the different categories of debt recorded, but the 4 June 1859, Mount Lombardo-Veneto, and to capital made in the interest of the fund cash deposits of cushioning, the new Government undertakes to three-fifths, and Austria for two-fifths, is to pay interests, both to repay principal, comply with the regulations in force until now. The debt securities of Austrian subjects will come preferably in Austria's share, in three months, dating from the exchange of ratifications, or rather it may be, trasmetterÃ al nuovo Governo di Lombardia quadri specificatiÂ di questi titoli.
9. The new Government of Lombardy happens to the rights and obligations resulting from regularly stipulated by the Austrian contracts for objects of public interest concerning especially given the country.
10. Il Governo Austriaco rimarrÃ incaricato del rimborso di tutte le somme versate dai sudditi Lombardi, by Municipalities and Public Corporations religious establishments, in the Austrian public coffers, by way of deposits, deposits and deliveries. Also the Austrian subjects, Common, Public Corporations and religious establishments, who have paid sums, by way of deposits, deposits or deliveries into the coffers of Lombardy, exactly they will be reimbursed by the new Government.
11. The new Government of Lombardy acknowledge and confirm the concessions of the streets-climbing, granted by the Austrian Government on the territory ceded, in all their provisions, and throughout their duration, namely the concessions resulting from I concluded contracts on the 14 March 1856, 8 April 1857, , 23 September 1858.
“Starting from the exchange of ratifications of the present Treaty the new Government shall be subrogated to all the rights and all the obligations that were for the Austrian Government, from the above concessions, in what concerns the way-railway lines in the territory ceded.
“Result, the right to devolution which belonged to the Austrian government about those streets-climbing, It is transferred to the new Government of Lombardy.
“Payments that are done on the amount due to the State by concessionaires, under the agreement of the 14 March 1856, as the equivalent of the construction cost of running the railways, They will be carried out entirely in the Austrian treasure.
“The credits for enterprising construction and suppliers, egualmente che le indennitÃ per espropriazioni di terreni, referring to the period when the streets-climbing in question were administered on behalf of the State and which have not yet been welded, They will be paid by the Austrian Government, ,, to the degree that they are required, by virtue of the concession, by dealers on behalf of the Austrian Government.
“Una convenzione speciale regolerÃ , in the shortest possible time, the international street-railways between their countries.
“Art. 12. The Lombard subjects domiciled in the territory ceded by the present treaty, enjoy, durante lo spazio di un anno a datare dal giorno dello scambio delle ratificazioni e mediante una dichiarazione antecedente dellâ€™autoritÃ competente, della facoltÃ piena ed intera di asportare i loro beni mobili con franchigia di diritti, and retire, with their families, negli Stati di Sua MaestÃ Imperiale e Reale Apostolica; nel qual caso la qualitÃ di sudditi austriaci sarÃ loro mantenuta. They will be free to keep their properties located on the territory of Lombardy.
“Eguale facoltÃ Ã¨ accordata reciprocamente agli individui originarÃ® del territorioÂ ceduto di Lombardia, stabiliti negli Stati di Sua MaestÃ lâ€™Imperatore dâ€™Austria.
“The Lombards who will profit of these provisions may not be, because of their choice, inquietati, neither one side nor the other, nelle loro persone o nelle loro proprietÃ situate negli Stati rispettivi.
“The space of a year is extended to two years for the original subjects of the transferred territory of Lombardy, who at the time of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty they were outside the territory of the Austrian Monarchy.
La loro dichiarazione potrÃ essere dalla rappresentanza austriaca la piÃ¹ vicina, o dallâ€™autoritÃ superiore di una provincia qualunque della Monarchia.
“Art. 13. The Lombardi subjects that are part of the Austrian army, ad eccezione di quelli che sono originarÃ® della parte del territorio lombardo riservato a Sua MaestÃ lâ€™Imperatore dâ€™Austria col presente Trattato, they will be
immediate release from military service, and returned to their homes.
“It is understood, che quelli fra di essi che dichiareranno di voler restare al servizio di Sua MaestÃ Imperiale e Reale Apostolica non saranno per nulla inquietati per ciÃ², both in their persons, sia nelle loro proprietÃ .
“The same guarantees are guaranteed to civil servants originating in Lombardy, which manifest the intention of preserving the functions that take up the Austrian service.
“Art. 14. pensions, both civilian and military, regularly paid, and who were dependent on the public purse of Lombardy remain payable to their holders, and if you place, their widows and their children, and they will be paid in the future by the new Government of Lombardy.
“This stipolazione extends to pensioners, both civilian and military, yet as to their widows and children, without distinction of origin, that will keep their domicile in the territory ceded, and salaries of whom, satisfied until the 1814 from the past Kingdom of Italy, They are then passed the responsibility of the Austrian treasure.
“Art. 15. Gli archivi contenenti i titoli di proprietÃ e documenti amministrativi e di giustizia civile sia relativi alla parte della Lombardia il cui possesso
Ã¨ riservato a Sua MaestÃ lâ€™Imperatore dâ€™Austria col presente Trattato,
both the Venetian provinces, saranno rimessi ai CommissarÃ® di Sua MaestÃ Imperiale
and Royal Apostolic, appena si potrÃ fare.
i titoli di proprietÃ , administrative documents and civil justice relating
the ceded territory, which can be found in the archives of the Empire
Austrian will be remitted to the Commissioners of the new Government of Lombardy.
“The High Contracting Parties undertake to provide each other, sulla domanda delle autoritÃ amministrative superiori, all documents and information relating to the affairs relating to a time Lombardy and Venice.
“Art. 16. Le corporazioni religiose stabilite in Lombardia potranno liberamente disporre delle loro proprietÃ mobili ed immobili, if that new legislation,
under which they pass, does not authorize the preservation of their establishments.
“Art. 17. Sua MaestÃ lâ€™Imperatore dei Francesi si riserva di trasferire a Sua MaestÃ il Re di Sardegna nella forma consacrata dalle transazioni internazionali, the rights and obligations specified in Articles 7, 8, 9 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 , 16 of this Treaty, yet as I mentioned in Article Additional 7.
“Art. 18. Sua MaestÃ lâ€™Imperatore dei Francesi e Sua MaestÃ lâ€™Imperatore dâ€™Austria si obbligano a favorire con tutti i loro sforzi la creazione di una Confederazione tra gli Stati Italiani, che sarÃ posta sotto la honorary presidency S. Father, e lo scopo della quale sarÃ di mantenere lâ€™indipendenza e lâ€™inviolabilitÃ degli Stati confederati, to ensure the carrying out of 'their moral and material interests and to ensure internal and external security of Italy with the existence of the federal army.
“The Venice, che rimane posta sotto la corona di Sua MaestÃ Imperiale e Reale Apostolica, formerÃ uno degli Stati di questa Confederazione, e parteciperÃ agli obblighi come ai diritti risultanti dal patto federale, whose terms will be determined by an assembly composed of representatives of all Member Italian.
“Art. 19. The territorial districts of Independent States Italy, who did not take part in the last war, not being able to be changed
that with the assistance of the Powers that prevailed when they were training and recognized their existence, the rights of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, the Duke of Modena, and the Duke of Parma They are expressly reserved between the High Contracting Parties.
“Art. 20. Desiderando veder assicurati la tranquillitÃ degli Stati della Chiesa e il potere del S. Father, convinti che questo scopo non potrebbe essere piÃ¹ efficacemente ottenuto che con lâ€™adozione di un sistema adattato ai bisogni delle popolazioni e conforme alle generose intenzioni giÃ manifestate dal Sovrano Pontefice, Sua MaestÃ lâ€™Imperatore dei Francesi e Sua MaestÃ
lâ€™Imperatore dâ€™Austria uniranno i loro sforzi per ottenere da Sua SantitÃ , that the necessitÃ to introduce in the administration of 'its Member reform recognized as indispensable It is taken by his government seriously.
“Art. 21. To contribute with all their efforts to the pacification of spirits, the High Contracting Parties declare and promise that, in their respective territories
and returned or transferred countries, any individual compromise the occasion of the latest events in the peninsula, of any class or condition,
non potrÃ essere inquisito, molestato o turbato nella persona o nella sua proprietÃ , on account of his conduct or political opinions.
“Art. 22. Il presente Trattato sarÃ ratificato, and the ratifications shall be exchanged in Zurich in the space of two weeks or sooner if it can be done. IN WITNESS WHEREOF
of the respective plenipotentiaries have signed and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms.
“Done in Zurich, the tenth day of the month of November of the year of grace 1859.
(L. S.) Bourqueney
(L. S.) Banneville
(L. S.) Karoly
(L. S.) Meysembug.”
additional Article al Treaty signed, between
France and Austria, a Zurich, the 10 November 1959.
“Il Governo di Sua MaestÃ lâ€™Imperatore dei Francesi si obbliga verso il Governo di Sua MaestÃ Imperiale e Reale Apostolica di effettuare, on behalf of the new
Government of Lombardy, che glie ne garantirÃ il rimborso, the payment of forty million guilders (Coin Convention) stipolati Article 7 of this Treaty, in the manner and to the hereinafter specified dates:
“Eight million guilders will be paid in cash silver, by means of a warrant payable in Paris, interest free, in three months, a datare dal giorno della firma del presente Trattato e che sarÃ rimesso ai plenipotenziarÃ® di Sua MaestÃ Imperiale e Reale Apostolica al momento dello scambio delle ratificazioni.
“The payment of thirty million guilders remaining, avrÃ luogo a Vienna, cash silver and ten subsequent payments to make, Two in three months, in bills of exchange on Paris, at the rate of three million two hundred thousand florins (Coin Convention) each. Il primo di questi dieci versamenti avrÃ luogo due mesi dopo il pagamento del mandato di otto milioni di fiorini,
as above stipolato. For this term, as for all the following terms, interest will be counted to five percent, a datare dal primo giorno del mese che seguirÃ lo scambio delle ratificazioni del presente Trattato.
“Il presente articolo addizionale avrÃ la medesima forza e valore come se fosse inserito parola per parola al Trattato di questo giorno.
“Esso sarÃ ratificato in un solo atto, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at the same time.
“In witness whereof, the plenipotentiaries have signed this Ancillary respettivi article and have affixed their seal glue guns.
“Done in Zurich, the tenth day of the month of November of the year of grace 1859.
(L. S.) Bourqueney
(L. S.) Banneville
(L. S.) Karoly
(L. S.) Meysembug.”
The peace treaty was therefore made, and one would have said that one longer or shorter space of time were to rest your arms and beautiful smile of
peace flourish on the face of the troubled Italian peoples. But instead of that treaty seemed almost a spark to set fire to the powder to blow
in aria, not only the rest of Italy, but great part of Europe itself.
In fact, while the leading men, (Many of Freemasonry), held externally pout,Â in cuor loro gioivano, knowing how the Treaty of Zurich
altro non fosse che un debole ostacolo alÂ aggiungimento della unificazione dâ€™Italia e del fine ultimo della setta, the destruction of the Papacy; the
organs of action parties showed themselves not only malcontents, but eager and ready for new military ventures.
But they were not just known revolutionary organs agitavansi to shake, lo stesso Governo SardoÂ senza molti riguardi, in what one hand subscribed the treaty, with both was preparing new businesses. So they were collecting guns for the new war which no honest man imagined or thought possible at that time; and they not dealt with few
thousands of rifles to serve a purpose any internal or additional security against possible invasion of foreign enemies, but if he wanted a million. It should also be noted that this idea was the whole thing
the famous Garibaldi, il quale con febbrile attivitÃ scriveva lettere per ogni dove per aprire sottoscrizioni per acquistare questi fucili.
The Lombardy, new country, was taken seriously it, and the town hall of Milan is subscribed to 100 mila read. Non cosÃ¬ al di lÃ del Ticino, in ancient Piedmontese provinces, dove le popolazioni si mostravano talmenteÂ stanche di questi giuochi liberaleschi, He does not even dare to propose the signing:
of which the thing lagnavasi Right, regretting MISUSE species of disagreement between the Piedmontese and Lombardi. then Mazzini, not even be invited by anyone making the offering of 200 read, adding to the subscription
some words that all the newspapers under the eyes of the Piedmont Government were anxious to publish: “The weapons, he said, I'm all for us. It must affratellandosi rapidly in this superscription,
the Italian reveal manly pursuits and finally separating from quell'indecoroso chirping optimistic cowards, che aspettano libertÃ e patria da una decisione
conference between hypothetical foreign Rulers”.
The General From Bormida, Piemontese Minister for Foreign Affairs, portatosi in France and abboccatosi with Napoleon III S. Cloud, He returned to Turin
the letter of 20 October […], glue which the Emperor of the French dichiaravasi bound by the agreements Villafranca, and added need to keep the covenants drawing a sorting program in Italy to be incurred in the next Congress. The Imperial was the first to the letter published Times, It was played by all the movement's newspaper, which, however, they claimed to chorus, doversene not take into account, instead of having to go forward firmly and order, given that the order saves nations, and repeated the Napoleonic program of the liberation of Italy from the Alps to the Adriatic, as the only logic that melts each
Meanwhile Garibaldi had suddenly called to Turin, and he had several talks with the King. He then claims that they gave all 'Hero of Two Worlds
tips and orders conform to the letter of Napoleon III; but instead they got along together to go it alone.
The attitude of the Garibaldi having moved the Cabinet Tuileries, the Piedmontese Government so called central Italy. He went on to Nice early December, He spent Savona, dove in una allocuzione annunziÃ² pubblicamente una prossimaÂ riscossa. So he brought in Genoa around which held, to be ready at each occurrence. Meanwhile, in order to be more free and independent acting he resigned from command of the bands, leaving to others the painful task of dissolve.
Ricapitoliano some dates. - The July 11 they settled between the two emperors of the peace preliminaries in Villafranca; 8 August came together plenipotentiaries Zurich, for the solemn Treaty; the 20 September Mazzini wrote to Vittorio Emmanuele of to dare, and break the treaty before concluding; the 20 October Napoleon wrote to Vittorio Emmanuele it is observed
peace; the 10 November is subscribed to, the Treaty of Zurich; intanto Garibaldi venivaÂ chiamato a Torino e si incontrava con Vittorio Emmanuele, and the 23 the same month ran to his comrades in arms the above proclaims, blockbuster war ring with which he responded to the treaty of peace.