These pages are extracted from my book “The republic never born” of the 2007 . No publisher has proven to be available for publication at reasonable cost.
The 27 October 1943 Major Linn M. Farish (American) delivery to the Strategic Operations Service (O.S.S.) in Bari the report of his mission on Tito's political and military objectives, giving him ample credit and affirming the need to help him. According to him the Anglo-Americans had already made a mistake the month before when they had not supported the partisans during their occupation of Split.. From that moment, many islands and large stretches of the Dalmatian coast, already controlled by the Tito partisans, they had supplies by air and by sea. Farish asked "limited air support along the Dalmatian coast in order to protect the supply lines” , but it was believed that Zara, to over 200 kilometers as the crow flies, was a threat, and so already starting from November the Anglo-Americans begin to bomb it together with Istria. Instead Zara was not even connected to the railway, and it had only an impracticable road to cross the Alps that separate it from the rest of Yugoslavia. In fact, there were no more than in Zadar and the surrounding area 1200 German soldiers in the moment of maximum occupation. The fact is that Tito wanted to bomb Zara even though there was no military need1 .
Between 29 and the 30 November 1943 – 142 popular delegates from various parts of Yugoslavia to Jaice, proclaimed the establishment of the “Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia”. Titus is placed at the head of the government with the rank of “Marshal of Yugoslavia”. Istria is unilaterally annexed to this new republic, River, Zadar and the Slovenian and Croatian coast. They are then supported by the allies who acted on titled information.
Also by virtue of the subdivision of the Balkans made in Yalta, the Titines were able to advance from the South, and until the arrival in Trieste in May 1945, the Titine army, considered regular, implemented a form of ethnic cleansing throughout Yugoslavia but especially in Istra and Dalmatia, in most cases to the detriment of Venetians who as Italian citizens were identified as fascists. It was therefore an ethnic cleansing which was also justified on ideological political grounds (communism) but that also became an occasion for some personal revenge, just as many were those who took the opportunity to get on the bandwagon of the new regime also as spies and informers.
This cleaning took place with torture, shootings, infoibamenti, and of many sinkholes even the trace was lost and very few remains recovered. In fact, the sinkholes were sometimes closed with a simple explosion that closed the access. What is certain is that the practice lasted long enough to convince 350.000 people to abandon the land of ancestors, Homeland, abandoning all good and all kinship.
The communist partisans of Garibaldini had been diverted to Ljubljana and after Titian orders they returned to Istria only after twenty days, now "clean" done. The orders of Tito and his foreign minister Kardelj were to â € œStrictly punish all fomenters of chauvinism and national hatredâ €?, â€œClean up right awayâ€3. Titus and the Slavic Communists,but also the Italian ones of the Garibaldi Brigade up to Togliatti (justice minister)Â they thought of Venetia (then legally called Venezia-Giulia ) as a legitimate ancestry property, this time Slavic: the Venetians were Slovenians, not Italian. The exact symmetry of what the Fascists did in Slovenia and in Venetia. With the same curious psychological dynamic that we saw for the fascists, the carnage did not spare even the anti-fascists like those of the Osoppo Brigade, which however were of clear Italian faith, and even some members of the partisan CLN were uninhibited as non-Slavs. Just as the fascists had done in Slovenia by infoibating non-Italian Venetians, the native was hunted down, this time "Italian", and there were summary executions, deportations, infoibamenti. But it is not correct to see it as a simple retaliation, because few human beings who having lost a relative in a political murder find justice in seeing any poor man killed although of another culture. It is an ethnic political massacre.
Of course, the Italian military and civilians were not spared, but for the same logics of the fascists, this time Slovenian and Croatian non-communist civilians were also victims. Many were killed with hammers in order not to make noise and not to trigger the reaction of the population. The available figures tell us that only in Trieste were they deported around 8000 people alone 45 days. Foiba di Basovizza alone is estimated to contain beyond 2.000 people, calculated on the basis of 300 cubic meters of bodies and bones piled inside. Yet all of this could have been avoided at least in part if the 2 and the 3 May, how much the allies arrived in Trieste, they had stayed there instead of returning to Monfalcone.
Only the 9 June 1945 Titus and General Alexander defined 2 occupation areas. Only then did the Allies touch Trieste, half Gorizia and half Istria4 and the definition of the region was postponed through a referendum after the war was over for possible self-government. Tito retired to zone B to the south, and in view of the vote, the persecution of non-Slavs lasted at least until '47.
The destruction of Zadar and the ethnic cleansing of the city take special light . Based on the Austro-Hungarian census of 1910 Zara was populated for the 70% of the population from Italians, and the rest 30% they were Germans, Serbs and Croats.
Note 1- Gen. Carlo Ravnich was, in 1943, major commander of the Alpini battalion “Aosta!”. On 8 September I pass with the Titini partisans and in “Illustrated story” n. 274 of September 1980 says that then, after the first collaboration agreements, the Yugoslav partisan command asked that they make a phonogram in their name to ask Italy to bomb Zara because, they said, “considerable German forces were concentrating on it“. Ravnich recalls that the phonogram left even though they tried to modify it so as to make it unreliable.
Note 2 – on communist crimes in Dalmatia see also http://www.dalmatia.it/dalmazia/calvario/alleati1.htm
On the communist and Togliatti project of annexation of Friuli and Veneto to Yugoslavia see http://www.palmerini.net/blog/?p=88
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